Bell Erfinder Bell bedient sich wohl auch bei Antonio Meucci
Alexander Graham Bell war ein britischer, später US-amerikanischer Audiologe, Erfinder und Großunternehmer. Er gilt als der erste Mensch, der aus der Erfindung des Telefons Kapital geschlagen hat, indem er Ideen seiner Vorgänger zur Marktreife. Alexander G. Bell und das Telefon des Antonio Meucci[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Siehe auch: Erfindung. Nachdem Bell „sein“ Telefon zum Patent anmeldete, versuchte Meucci, dies anzufechten. Auch war dieses erste Telefon war nicht sonderlich gebrauchsfähig. meldet Alexander Graham Bell sein Telefon zum Patent an und verbesserte es immer. Mitte des Jahrhunderts wird das Telefon gleich vierfach erfunden. Am Ende aber kassiert Alexander Graham Bell den Ruhm.
Dort forschte, experimentierte und entwickelt derjunge Bell weiter am Telefon und Alle drei Erfinder hatten es versäumt, ihr geistiges Eigentum durch Patente. Alexander Graham Bell war ein britischer, später US-amerikanischer Audiologe, Erfinder und Großunternehmer. Er gilt als der erste Mensch, der aus der Erfindung des Telefons Kapital geschlagen hat, indem er Ideen seiner Vorgänger zur Marktreife. Historisches Telefon, das die Technik von Philipp Reis nutzte. Quelle: picture-alliance / maxppp. Bell gilt noch immer als Erfinder des Telefons. Bell, Alexander Graham February Alexander Graham Bell entre i Das sowie die familiär vorgeprägte berufliche Laufbahn veranlassten Bell offensichtlich, einer der engagiertesten Befürworter des lautsprachlich orientierten Erziehungsprinzips für Gehörlose im Gegensatz zu gebärdensprachlich orientierten Methoden zu werden. At age 19, Bell wrote a report on his work and sent it to philologist Alexander Ellisa colleague of his father who would later be portrayed as Professor Henry Higgins in Pygmalion. Bell photo portrait, from the Smithsonian's Dibner Library of the History of Science and Technology collection, undated. Spielbank Bad Homburg from the original on September 24, We never could have come here [to Beinn Bhreagh] in the first place or continued here, but for the telephone which kept us in close touch with doctors Bell Erfinder neighbors and the regular telegraph office Dismayed to find that groundbreaking work had already been undertaken by Helmholtz who had conveyed vowel Copytrader Erfahrungen by means of a similar tuning fork "contraption", Bell click at this page over the Cookie Spiele Kostenlos scientist's book. Image of This led him and Bell to the development of practical hydrofoil watercraft. Die Ersten Versuche und das erste Telefonat. Marketing ist kein deutsches Wort. Ab wurde ein neuartiger Schallwandler verbaut, der den Bell Erfinder Übergangswiderstand zwischen Membran und einem Stück Kohle zur Signalgewinnung nutzte. Der von Bell drei Wochen nach der Anmeldung und drei Tage nach der Erteilung des Patents von ihm vorgeführte erste Read more bestand unter anderem aus einer Membran und einem Mikrofon, wie sie in Grays Patentantrag angegeben waren. Ja, da ist etwas dran. Und insbesondere bei Innovationen hängt es von vielen Faktoren ab, wer im kollektiven Gedächtnis als Star gespeichert ist. Das Hineinbrüllen in einen senkrecht darüber angeordneten Trichter brachte Scheibe und Draht zum Schwingen. Reis verstarb Das Reis-Telefon soll Musik gut übertragen haben - umstritten ist Extra Gehalt, ob der Apparat dazu in der Lage war, menschliche Sprache verständlich zu übermitteln. Bei der Funkvermittlungsstelle wird das Gespräch Breda Bingo an das herkömmliche Festnetz oder an eine andere Funkvermittlungsstelle übergeben, die das Gespräch an die nächstgelegene Basisstation weiterleitet, von wo es das Empfänger-Handy erreicht. Damit war auch eine prinzipielle Möglichkeit gegeben, mechanische Schwingungen in sich https://bevhillsmdreviews.co/online-casino-startguthaben/internet-spiele-ohne-anmeldung.php elektrischen Strom zu wandeln und umgekehrt.
GOLDFISCH VERLIERT FARBE Denn Book of Ra und Bell Erfinder wichtig fГr das Spielerlebnis der, dass man damit zwar trotzdem see more an erster Stelle.
|Schalke Hoffenheim Sky||469|
|BESTE SPIELOTHEK IN SCHNELLING FINDEN||Zwar scheiterten diese Versuche, doch hatte Bell damit die Voraussetzungen für die Konstruktion eines funktionierenden Telefons geschaffen. Wie Philipp Reis wurde er im hessischen Gelnhausen geboren. Schon frühzeitig als More info interessierte er sich für das Gebiet der Telephonie. In den dort gezeigten Fernsprechapparaten erfolgt die Schallwandlung durch elektromagnetische Induktion. Dabei erkannte er, dass für die Wiedergabe von Sprache Veränderungen des Stromflusses anstelle von dessen wiederholter Unterbrechung nötig sind. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Zudem click dieser Widerstand in seiner Patentschrift nicht aufgeführt.|
|Bell Erfinder||Beste Spielothek in Rachlau finden|
|BESTE SPIELOTHEK IN DСЊNZLAU FINDEN||Beste Spielothek in Habichtshorst finden|
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Bell Statue in the front portico of the Bell Telephone Building in Brantford , Ontario, The Telephone City , where he conceived of and invented his famous telecommunications device.
The master patent , No. Johnson Deyonhehgon , seated centre c. Photo courtesy: IEEE. Bell, opened in Photo: Harry Zilber. Bell is recipient at the very top.
Page 4 of the Presidential Decree of 10 November , competitor Thomas Edison is recipient sic at the very bottom.
Plaque commemorating the conception of the telephone in Bell's Brantford, Ontario home in , at the Bell Homestead. Plaque commemorating Canada's first telephone company office , established in Brantford, Ontario, A birthplace marker at the entrance to Bell's birthhome, in his native Edinburgh, Scotland.
Image taken April A plaque placed at Bell's workplace in Boston commemorating the 'birth' of the telephone on June 2, , some 10 months prior to its first intelligible use.
View of the same plaque, with the Henderson Home, Canada's first telephone company business office , in the background. Plaque commemorating the first long distance telephone call , received by Bell in Paris, Ontario, Canada on August 10, Alexander Graham Bell is shown holding an early long distance phone conversation.
Courtesy: Harry Zilber. Bell Telephone Memorial: Central bronze casting. Bell Telephone Memorial supplementary view.
Photo of Volta Bureau in Georgetown, Washington, D. Image from State Historic Preservation Office. An earlier photo of the Volta Bureau , taken by the U.
National Park Service, in Bell's name and plaque were removed in Image from June Mother and Child image taken by A.
More on Alexander Graham Bell. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Alexander Graham Bell entre i Beinn Bhreagh. Smithsonian Institution.
Alexander Melville Bell. Elsie May Grosvenor Marian Fairchild. Mabel Gardiner Hubbard — English: Alexander Graham Bell was a Scottish -born inventor, teacher, scientist and philanthropist, most widely known for the invention of the telephone.
Bell invented his telephone while in Canada in , later became a U. Er gilt als der erste Mensch, der aus der Erfindung des Telefons Kapital geschlagen hat, indem er Ideen seiner Vorgänger zur Marktreife weiterentwickelte.
Alexander Graham Bell, three-quarter length portrait, standing, facing left, Alexander Melville Bell , father to Alexander Graham.
From: The Canadian Album Diagram of the Photophone , image is taken from Alexander Graham Bell's paper. Alexander Graham Bell's photophone - technical drawing by Bell , Bell HD-4 Hydrofoil , which once held the world's marine speed record.
A rare photo taken at Volta Laboratory showing a sound recording experiment , Post Office's series on inventors.
Plaque commemorating the first two-way long distance telephone conversation see above. Plaque commemorating first sound transmissions by Bell and Watson in Boston, Historical marker for the birthplace of the first telephone , Boston, MA.
As is sometimes common in scientific discoveries, simultaneous developments can occur, as evidenced by a number of inventors who were at work on the telephone.
Supreme Court ,  but none was successful in establishing priority over the original Bell patent   and the Bell Telephone Company never lost a case that had proceeded to a final trial stage.
In personal correspondence to Bell, both Gray and Dolbear had acknowledged his prior work, which considerably weakened their later claims.
On January 13, , the U. Government moved to annul the patent issued to Bell on the grounds of fraud and misrepresentation. After a series of decisions and reversals, the Bell company won a decision in the Supreme Court, though a couple of the original claims from the lower court cases were left undecided.
With a change in administration and charges of conflict of interest on both sides arising from the original trial, the US Attorney General dropped the lawsuit on November 30, , leaving several issues undecided on the merits.
During a deposition filed for the trial, Italian inventor Antonio Meucci also claimed to have created the first working model of a telephone in Italy in In , in the first of three cases in which he was involved, [N 16] Meucci took the stand as a witness in the hope of establishing his invention's priority.
Meucci's testimony in this case was disputed due to a lack of material evidence for his inventions, as his working models were purportedly lost at the laboratory of American District Telegraph ADT of New York, which was later incorporated as a subsidiary of Western Union in House of Representatives on June 11, , stated that Meucci's "work in the invention of the telephone should be acknowledged".
The Siemens company produced near-identical copies of the Bell telephone without having to pay royalties. The strain put on Bell by his constant appearances in court, necessitated by the legal battles, eventually resulted in his resignation from the company.
His wedding present to his bride was to turn over 1, of his 1, shares in the newly formed Bell Telephone Company. During that excursion, Bell took a handmade model of his telephone with him, making it a "working holiday".
The courtship had begun years earlier; however, Bell waited until he was more financially secure before marrying.
Although the telephone appeared to be an "instant" success, it was not initially a profitable venture and Bell's main sources of income were from lectures until after From , he would sign his name "Alec Bell".
The Bell family home was in Cambridge, Massachusetts, until when Bell's father-in-law bought a house in Washington, D. Bell was a British subject throughout his early life in Scotland and later in Canada until when he became a naturalized citizen of the United States.
In , he characterized his status as: "I am not one of those hyphenated Americans who claim allegiance to two countries.
By , a new summer retreat was contemplated. He was an enthusiastic boater, and Bell and his family sailed or rowed a long series of vessels on Bras d'Or Lake , ordering additional vessels from the H.
In his final, and some of his most productive years, Bell split his residency between Washington, D. Until the end of his life, Bell and his family would alternate between the two homes, but Beinn Bhreagh would, over the next 30 years, become more than a summer home as Bell became so absorbed in his experiments that his annual stays lengthened.
Both Mabel and Bell became immersed in the Baddeck community and were accepted by the villagers as "their own".
Mabel and Bell mobilized the community to help victims in Halifax. Although Alexander Graham Bell is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, his interests were extremely varied.
These included 14 for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone , one for the phonograph , five for aerial vehicles, four for "hydroairplanes", and two for selenium cells.
Bell's inventions spanned a wide range of interests and included a metal jacket to assist in breathing, the audiometer to detect minor hearing problems, a device to locate icebergs, investigations on how to separate salt from seawater, and work on finding alternative fuels.
Bell worked extensively in medical research and invented techniques for teaching speech to the deaf.
During his Volta Laboratory period, Bell and his associates considered impressing a magnetic field on a record as a means of reproducing sound.
Although the trio briefly experimented with the concept, they could not develop a workable prototype. They abandoned the idea, never realizing they had glimpsed a basic principle which would one day find its application in the tape recorder , the hard disc and floppy disc drive, and other magnetic media.
Bell's own home used a primitive form of air conditioning, in which fans blew currents of air across great blocks of ice.
He also anticipated modern concerns with fuel shortages and industrial pollution. Methane gas, he reasoned, could be produced from the waste of farms and factories.
At his Canadian estate in Nova Scotia, he experimented with composting toilets and devices to capture water from the atmosphere. In a magazine interview published shortly before his death, he reflected on the possibility of using solar panels to heat houses.
Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter jointly invented a wireless telephone, named a photophone , which allowed for the transmission of both sounds and normal human conversations on a beam of light.
On June 21, , Bell's assistant transmitted a wireless voice telephone message a considerable distance, from the roof of the Franklin School in Washington, D.
Bell believed the photophone's principles were his life's "greatest achievement", telling a reporter shortly before his death that the photophone was "the greatest invention [I have] ever made, greater than the telephone".
Bell is also credited with developing one of the early versions of a metal detector through the use of an induction balance, after the shooting of U.
President James A. Garfield in According to some accounts, the metal detector worked flawlessly in tests but did not find Guiteau 's bullet, partly because the metal bed frame on which the President was lying disturbed the instrument, resulting in static.
Bell's own detailed account, presented to the American Association for the Advancement of Science in , differs in several particulars from most of the many and varied versions now in circulation, by concluding that extraneous metal was not to blame for failure to locate the bullet.
Perplexed by the peculiar results he had obtained during an examination of Garfield, Bell "proceeded to the Executive Mansion the next morning It was then recollected that underneath the horse-hair mattress on which the President lay was another mattress composed of steel wires.
Upon obtaining a duplicate, the mattress was found to consist of a sort of net of woven steel wires, with large meshes.
The extent of the [area that produced a response from the detector] having been so small, as compared with the area of the bed, it seemed reasonable to conclude that the steel mattress had produced no detrimental effect.
Meacham explained the basic principle of hydrofoils and hydroplanes. Bell considered the invention of the hydroplane as a very significant achievement.
Based on information gained from that article, he began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat.
Bell and assistant Frederick W. Baldwin studied the work of the Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini and began testing models.
This led him and Bell to the development of practical hydrofoil watercraft. During his world tour of —11, Bell and Baldwin met with Forlanini in France.
They had rides in the Forlanini hydrofoil boat over Lake Maggiore. Baldwin described it as being as smooth as flying.
On returning to Baddeck, a number of initial concepts were built as experimental models, including the Dhonnas Beag Scottish Gaelic for little devil , the first self-propelled Bell-Baldwin hydrofoil.
Pinaud's experience in boat-building enabled him to make useful design changes to the HD Bell's report to the U.
Navy permitted him to obtain two horsepower kilowatts engines in July On September 9, , the HD-4 set a world marine speed record of In , Bell had begun experiments to develop motor-powered heavier-than-air aircraft.
The AEA was first formed as Bell shared the vision to fly with his wife, who advised him to seek "young" help as Bell was at the age of In , Bell experimented with tetrahedral box kites and wings constructed of multiple compound tetrahedral kites covered in maroon silk.
Bell was a supporter of aerospace engineering research through the Aerial Experiment Association AEA , officially formed at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, in October at the suggestion of his wife Mabel and with her financial support after the sale of some of her real estate.
Curtiss , a motorcycle manufacturer at the time and who held the title "world's fastest man", having ridden his self-constructed motor bicycle around in the shortest time, and who was later awarded the Scientific American Trophy for the first official one-kilometre flight in the Western hemisphere , and who later became a world-renowned airplane manufacturer; Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge , an official observer from the U.
Federal government and one of the few people in the army who believed that aviation was the future; Frederick W. The AEA's work progressed to heavier-than-air machines, applying their knowledge of kites to gliders.
Moving to Hammondsport, the group then designed and built the Red Wing , framed in bamboo and covered in red silk and powered by a small air-cooled engine.
One of the AEA's inventions, a practical wingtip form of the aileron , was to become a standard component on all aircraft.
Bell allowed it to continue with experiments. Selfridge had also become the first person killed in a powered heavier-than-air flight in a crash of the Wright Flyer at Fort Myer , Virginia , on September 17, Their final aircraft design, the Silver Dart , embodied all of the advancements found in the earlier machines.
McCurdy from the frozen ice of Bras d'Or made the first aircraft flight in Canada. Bell was connected with the eugenics movement in the United States.
In his lecture Memoir upon the formation of a deaf variety of the human race presented to the National Academy of Sciences on November 13, the year of his election as a Member of the National Academy of Sciences , he noted that congenitally deaf parents were more likely to produce deaf children and tentatively suggested that couples where both parties were deaf should not marry.
The committee unequivocally extended the principle to humans. Organizations such as these advocated passing laws with success in some states that established the compulsory sterilization of people deemed to be, as Bell called them, a "defective variety of the human race".
By the late s, about half the states in the U. Honors and tributes flowed to Bell in increasing numbers as his invention became ubiquitous and his personal fame grew.
Bell received numerous honorary degrees from colleges and universities to the point that the requests almost became burdensome.
These included statuary monuments to both him and the new form of communication his telephone created, including the Bell Telephone Memorial erected in his honor in Alexander Graham Bell Gardens in Brantford , Ontario, in A number of historic sites and other marks commemorate Bell in North America and Europe, including the first telephone companies in the United States and Canada.
Among the major sites are:. These included the prestigious 'Volta Laboratory Association' , also known as the Volta Laboratory and as the 'Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory', and which eventually led to the Volta Bureau as a center for studies on deafness which is still in operation in Georgetown, Washington, D.
The Volta Laboratory became an experimental facility devoted to scientific discovery, and the very next year it improved Edison's phonograph by substituting wax for tinfoil as the recording medium and incising the recording rather than indenting it, key upgrades that Edison himself later adopted.
In partnership with Gardiner Greene Hubbard , Bell helped establish the publication Science during the early s. In , Bell was elected as the second president of the National Geographic Society , serving until , and was primarily responsible for the extensive use of illustrations, including photography, in the magazine.
He was one of the founders of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in and served as its president from — The First Day of Issue ceremony was held on October 28 in Boston, Massachusetts, the city where Bell spent considerable time on research and working with the deaf.
The Bell stamp became very popular and sold out in little time. The stamp became, and remains to this day, the most valuable one of the series.
The illustrations on the reverse of the note include Bell's face in profile, his signature, and objects from Bell's life and career: users of the telephone over the ages; an audio wave signal ; a diagram of a telephone receiver; geometric shapes from engineering structures; representations of sign language and the phonetic alphabet; the geese which helped him to understand flight; and the sheep which he studied to understand genetics.
That first flight was made by an airplane designed under Dr. Bell's tutelage, named the Silver Dart. In , Bell was also named as one of the 10 greatest Scottish scientists in history after having been listed in the National Library of Scotland 's 'Scottish Science Hall of Fame'.
Alexander Graham Bell, who could not complete the university program of his youth, received at least a dozen honorary degrees from academic institutions, including eight honorary LL.
Bell died of complications arising from diabetes on August 2, , at his private estate in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, at age Bell, saying: .
My colleagues in the Government join with me in expressing to you our sense of the world's loss in the death of your distinguished husband.
It will ever be a source of pride to our country that the great invention, with which his name is immortally associated, is a part of its history.
On the behalf of the citizens of Canada, may I extend to you an expression of our combined gratitude and sympathy.
Bell's coffin was constructed of Beinn Bhreagh pine by his laboratory staff, lined with the same red silk fabric used in his tetrahedral kite experiments.
To help celebrate his life, his wife asked guests not to wear black the traditional funeral color while attending his service, during which soloist Jean MacDonald sang a verse of Robert Louis Stevenson 's "Requiem": .
Upon the conclusion of Bell's funeral, "every phone on the continent of North America was silenced in honor of the man who had given to mankind the means for direct communication at a distance".
Alexander Graham Bell was buried atop Beinn Bhreagh mountain, on his estate where he had resided increasingly for the last 35 years of his life, overlooking Bras d'Or Lake.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Scientist and inventor known for his work on the telephone. Edinburgh , Scotland.
Beinn Bhreagh , Nova Scotia , Canada. University of Edinburgh University College London. Mabel Hubbard m.
Gardiner G. Hubbard father-in-law David C. Bell uncle Gilbert H. Re-identified in , Bell made this wax-disc recording of his voice in Main article: Invention of the telephone.
Main article: Elisha Gray and Alexander Bell telephone controversy. Further information: The Telephone Cases. Further information: Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia.
Main article: Photophone. Play media. Main article: HD See also: Bell Telephone Memorial. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it.
Bell, Alexander Graham October Bibcode : AmJS Also published as: Bell, Alexander Graham September 23, Bibcode : Natur.. Bell, Alexander Graham Washington, D.
Bell, Alexander Graham February The National Geographic Magazine. National Geographic Society. To the end of his days, when discussing himself, Bell would always add with pride "I am a teacher of the deaf".
When he moved to Canada in , Canadian and British citizenship were functionally identical, with Canadian citizenship only becoming a formal classification in He applied for American citizenship after , gained it in , and referred to himself as an American citizen from that point on.
Quote from Bell speaking to his wife: "you are a citizen because you can't help it — you were born one, but I chose to be one.
On October 24, , in Brantford, Ontario, the Governor General spoke at the unveiling of the Bell Telephone Memorial to an audience numbering in the thousands, saying: "Dr.
Bell is to be congratulated upon being able to receive the recognition of his fellow citizens and fellow countrymen".
Bell's dislike of the telephone. Of course, he never had one in his study. That was where he went when he wanted to be alone with his thoughts and his work.
The telephone, of course, means intrusion by the outside world. And the little difficulties and delays often attending the establishment of conversation But all really important business over the telephone he transacted himself.
There are few private houses more completely equipped with telephones than ours Bell was more particular about than our telephone service We never could have come here [to Beinn Bhreagh] in the first place or continued here, but for the telephone which kept us in close touch with doctors and neighbors and the regular telegraph office Bell did like to say in fun, "Why did I ever invent the Telephone," but no one had a higher appreciation of its indispensableness or used it more freely when need was—either personally or by deputy —and he was really tremendously proud of it and all it was accomplishing.
It received its historical designation from the Government of Canada on June 1, Mabel's exact age when she became deaf would later play a part in the debate on the effectiveness of manual versus oral education for deaf children , as children who are older at the onset of deafness retain greater vocalization skills and are thus more successful in oral education programs.
Some of the debate centred on whether Mabel had to relearn oral speech from scratch, or whether she never lost it.
It was invented in Brantford at Tutela Heights in the summer of Others transmitted a sound or a click or a buzz but our boys [Bell and Watson] were the first to transmit speech one could understand.
Bell was so ecstatic that he wanted to jointly name his new invention and his new daughter Photophone Greek: " light—sound " ,   Bell wrote: "Only think!
Mabel's baby screamed inarticulately but mine spoke with distinct enunciation from the first. Bell quickly disassembled it and effected a repair, to the owner's amazement.
When asked how he was able to do so Bell only needed to introduce himself. Bell also chose maroon-colored silk as it would show up clearly against the light-colored sky in his photographic studies.
Views of an Expert. Hammondsport , New York, March 12, Boulton and was also created independently by Robert Esnault-Pelterie and several others.
Attending the formal ceremony were Bell's daughter, Mrs. To each side of the portico facing the monument are the engraved inscriptions "In Grateful Recognition of the Inventor of the Telephone".
Its dedication was broadcast live nationally by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. His wife, Mabel, daughter Daisy, and son-in-law David Fairchild had gathered around him.
His last view was of the moon rising above the mountain he loved". Halifax, Nova Scotia: Formac Publishing. IEEE Spectrum. April 30, Retrieved May 10, Bell Homestead National Historic Site.
Retrieved September 27, Douglas Archived from the original PDF on April 19, Retrieved May 4, Bruce , p.
Bell: Alexander Bell and the Conquest of Solitude. Toronto, Ontario: Kids Can Press. Bell's Appreciation of the Telephone Service".
Bell Telephone Quarterly. Retrieved September 18, Retrieved January 9, Retrieved January 18, Though he wasn't one of the original 33 founders, Bell had a major influence on the Society.
National Academy of Sciences. Roy Alexander Graham Bell. Retrieved: July 28, Bell Dead. Father of Prof. Bell Developed Sign Language for Mutes".
The New York Times. August 8, The Franklin Institute. January 14, Retrieved February 24, Calgary, Alberta: Altitude Publishing.
Edinburgh, UK: Mainstream Publishing. Toronto, Ontario: Grolier. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XV — online ed. University of Toronto Press.
Retrieved March 6, Boston, Massachusetts: Grosset and Dunlap. Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone.
New York: HarperCollins. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved September 17, Alexander Graham Bell at Baddeck.
Baddeck, Nova Scotia: Christopher King. February 10, Recording Technology History. Audio Engineering Society. Retrieved September 19, The Handbook of Social Justice in Education.
London: Routledge. Mabel Bell: Alexander's Silent Partner. Toronto, Ontario: Methuen. Toronto, Ontario: McClelland and Stewart.
Pioneers of Science. July 25, Retrieved October 14, Retrieved on September 20, Archived from the original on December 23, Edward Boston University.
Retrieved March 28, IAP Quotegrab. August 2, Wilbur "confesses " ". The Washington Post. May 22, Telecommunications Canada. Retrieved January 14, Parks Canada.
New York: Popular Mechanics. August March 7, American Heritage. Archived from the original on March 11, Mississauga, Ontario: Copp Clark Pitman.
National Archives UK. Island Echo. Queen Victoria liked the telephone so much she wanted to buy it. The Telegraph.
January 13, Library of Congress. The instruments at present in Osborne are merely those supplied for ordinary commercial purposes, and it will afford me much pleasure to be permitted to offer to the Queen a set of Telephones to be made expressly for her Majesty's use.
Scientists who Made History. New York: Raintree Steck-Vaughn. The Library of Congress. Retrieved March 7, January 26, Retrieved July 21, Australasian Telephone Collecting Society.
Moorebank, NSW, Australia. Retrieved April 22, Markham, Ontario: Pembroke. May 10, Retrieved July 28, American Bell Telephone Co.
Jusrtia US Supreme Court. November 12, An important acknowledgment for Antonio Meucci". The Guardian. Retrieved October 25, September 5, Archived from the original on July 17, Italian Historical Society of America.
Archived from the original on October 15, Retrieved December 29, Alexander Graham Bell and the Telephone. Scientific American.
Science Discoveries. Bibcode : SciAm. Bell Dies. Inspired Telephone. January 4,